Electricity is increasingly being produced from renewable sources reducing the level of carbon intensity. Thermal losses and associated energy consumption have considerably reduced as a result of improvements to the fabric of buildings. Electric heating provides a solution that is 100% efficient at the point of use where every kWh paid for is converted into heat. Electric heating can be controlled with a higher degree of accuracy than other systems offering room by room control which can react quickly to supplementary heat gains, electric heating requires almost no annual maintenance whilst offering greater reliability and a lower capital installation cost.


Convected heat is carried around a room in the form of heated air. Air is drawn across a heating element inside the electrical heater and circulated into the room. Heated air is lighter and diffuses the colder air which is denser and raises the ambient temperature. The hotter the electric heater’s heating element, the further the convected heat will flow before diffusing into the air.


Unlike convected heat, radiant heat does not rely on the directing heat of air. It relies instead on electromagnetic infrared waves which transfer the energy and release it as heat once it strikes an object and is how the sun and fire release energy as heat.


Building Regulations Approved Document Part L demands that appropriate steps are taken for the conservation of energy by limiting heat loss and heat gain through the material of a home as well as addressing the efficiency of heating, lighting and ventilation. Part L1A applies to the conservation of fuel and power in new dwellings in England and Part L1B applies to a conservation of fuel and power in existing dwellings in England. Part L1A requires that reasonable provision is made for the conservation of fuel and power in buildings by limiting heat gains and losses through thermal elements and other parts of the building fabric and providing fixed building services that are energy efficient, have effective controls to ensure they use no more power than is reasonable in the circumstances.


The Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) is the UK Government’s recommended methodology for determining the energy rating of homes. Its purpose is to provide accurate and reliable assessments of dwelling performances needed to underpin environmental policy initiatives. SAP works by assessing how much energy a dwelling will consume when delivering a defined level of comfort and service provision.


The Dwelling Emission Rate (DER) is the actual CO2 emission rate of self-contained dwellings and individual flats (excluding common areas) based on their actual specification. The DER must not exceed the Target Emission Rate (TER).


The Target Emission Rate (TER) sets a minimal allowable standard for the energy performance of a building and is defined by the annual CO2 emissions of a notional building of the same type, size and shape to the proposed building. TER is expressed in annual kilograms of CO2 per square metre.

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